There are numerous etiologies of back pain in the pediatric population. Most of the children experiencing the back pain who are seen in orthopaedic outpatient need careful evaluation of underlying biomechanical and musculoskeletal cause. Nevertheless, other causes like rheumatic, infectious or oncologic etiology need to be considered. This research explores evaluation, differential diagnoses, and diagnosis of back pain in young children. Back pain in children, adolescents and young adults is less common that in mature adults. One of the pertinent issues in the determination of the incidence and prevalence of the lower back pain in ways that, it is defined. Low back pain may be defined as the low back pain with no clinical cause, non-organic and non-specific pain. It is normally used as a descriptive term for different types of back pain. Mechanical pain is also a confusing term that refers to pain without the pathological underlying cause but is conversely used to explain conditions that arise from trauma or overuse such as the intervertebral disc prolapse, muscle pain or spondylolysis. Over the years, back pain has been considered as a sinister presentation within the young age group. Present studies now show that there are many children who experience back pain, but there are very few of them who seek medical intervention mainly because they think it’s normal. When assessing adolescents and children with back pain, it is essential to consider social factors, psychological and lifestyle, because spinal pain does not mean that the child has a spinal disease. Additionally, it is important to consider critical underlying conditions and perform the required investigations to describe these causes without over-investigating the patients with non-specific musculoskeletal pain.
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