Parathormone (PTH) is composed of four glands embedded in the thyroid gland, but its function is mainly to keep calcium in the blood within normal range. It has got sensitive receptors that trigger the PTH to act in correcting serum calcium. As calcium is important for the normal functioning of many organs including vital organs like heart and brain, the PTH has to be prompt in maintaining calcium in the blood within normal. The function of PTH is to increase absorption of calcium in the gut and to reduce its excretion in the kidneys. When vitamin is low it leads to drop of calcium in the blood leading to calcium being mobilized from the high calcium reserves in the bone by the action of PTH. The loss of calcium in the bones leads to decalcification of the bones which makes the clinical features of rickets in the bones. In case of rickets bones become soft leading to bow legs in walking infants. All these features are the result of action of Parathormone as with the rise of PTH it is noticed the gradual increase of calcium together with high alkaline phosphatase as an indication of activity of rickets in infants and osteomalacia in the mothers. This review is to express the mechanism of causation of rickets and osteomalacia by the activity of the hyperparathyroidism which is secondary to hypocalcemia due to vitamin D deficiency in the breast feeding infant and their mothers where the latter is considered in the phase of biochemical osteomalacia.
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