As being a Guest editor to this special issue, I would like to emphasize that joint replacement has developed by leaps and bounds in the previous decade. Among the arthroplasty main joints of lower limb were the once which saw a wave of change and still bringing lot of innovation in technique and design which is correspondingly seen in the outcomes. Total hip arthroplasty is an operation designed to decrease pain and increase function. It has become a predictable procedure with a high success rate in terms of implant longevity and patient expectation and satisfaction. Since the development of successful fixation of cemented and cementless hip prosthesis, progress in THA has turned to improving bearing surfaces. Metal-on-polyethylene bearings have been one of the mainstays of THA. However, several studies have reported aseptic loosening and osteolysis secondary to wear and particulate polyethylene debris. As and when there are new innovations so are few shortcomings associated with it. Next is the Total knee replacement. This sub speciality has developed and still developing. Millions of people have been benefitted by this operation. The ultimate goal of all TKRs is to produce a well aligned prosthesis with good ligament balance. Many designs in prosthesis along with different approaches have evolved with time. The specific incidence and causes for reoperation after total knee arthroplasty continue to change with time. In initial days it was with hinge and condylar knees, reoperations were most frequently required for prosthetic loosening, knee instability, and sepsis. With improved prosthetic designs and better surgical technique, reoperations are becoming less frequent. Polyethylene wear is now the leading cause for reoperation, while prosthetic loosening, instability, and patellofemoral problems are rare. We are bringing this special issue to bring out the recent advances to the orthopaedic fraternity for updating themselves. This issue will be a benchmark to the future of arthroplasty.