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Smoking is Associated with Increased Risk of Osteoporosis in Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Background: Diabetes mellitus, in particular Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), is a common metabolic disease with increasing prevalence throughout the world. Musculoskeletal (MSK) complications of DM are the most common endocrine arthropathies.

Osteoporosis is considered a global public health problem currently affecting over than 200 million people. Osteoporosis is the most common systemic skeleton illness that characterized by reduce of bone mass and disruption of bone architecture resulting an increased risk of fragility fractures which represent the main clinical consequence of the disease.

Smoking is associated with multiple complications of diabetes; the risk of complications associated with tobacco use and diabetes in combination has been stated to be approximately 14 times higher than the risk of either smoking or diabetes alone.

Objective: To assess the association of smoking with osteoporosis in diabetes mellitus patients.

Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 150 patients with diabetes mellitus mainly type 2. All patients were seen in the Department of Rheumatology in Hilla Teaching Hospital. Patient’s data were obtained via face-toface interview performed by a rheumatologist. DM related data, such as duration, Smoking history, drug use (oral hypoglycaemic drugs, insulin), Body Mass Index (BMI), patient send for DEXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) to confirm diagnosis of osteoporosis, also after exclusion of other causes of osteoporosis by exclusion criteria which done by many hormonal and other laboratory investigations.

Results: Among 150 patients with DM, 60.70% were females and 39.30% were males, as the females predominant in the study. There is an association between osteoporosis and age <50 years (p<0.004) due to most patients were female at premenopausal age.

There is significant association between smoking and osteoporosis in DM patients (p<0.002), Also, BMI show no significant association with osteoporosis in DM patients as most of patients were obese or overweight with increase bone mineral density.

Conclusion: There is significant association between smoking and osteoporosis in DM patients.


Tahir Alsaadawi

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